Department of Pediatrics

Human Hookworm Vaccine


Researchers at our laboratories are developing a bivalent hookworm vaccine that will provide protection against Necator americanus, an intestinal parasite that infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The vaccine will be comprised of two recombinant antigens, Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, enzymes involved in the parasite's digestion of host blood. Monovalent vaccines developed by our researchers with Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 as single antigens are currently undergoing various Phase 1 clinical trials. Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 have completed Phase 1, first-in-humans safety trials, becoming the first-ever hookworm vaccines to complete clinical trials. Na-GST-1 study record details Na-APR-1 study record details

Currently researchers at George Washington University are conducting a challenge test to determine the efficacy of Na-GST-1, infecting hookworm-naïve adults with hookworm larvae. Study record details

Other ongoing and pending safety trials:

Safety and Immunogenicity of the Human Hookworm Candidate Vaccine Na-GST-1 With Different Doses of a Novel Adjuvant

Safety and Immunogenicity of the Human Hookworm Candidate Vaccine Na-GST-1 With or Without Additional Adjuvant in Brazilian Adults

Safety and Immunogenicity of Co-Administered Hookworm Vaccine Candidates Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 in Gabonese Adults

Safety and Immunogenicity of Na-APR-1 Vaccine Co-administered With Na-GST-1 Vaccine in Brazilian Adults

Study of Co-administered Na-APR-1 (M74) and Na-GST-1 in Gabonese Children

Other current activities include stability testing for both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1.

Media Component
Hookworm larvae



Hookworm infects ~600 million people in the world and is particularly devastating to women and children, causing anemia and other sequelae including stunted physical and cognitive growth. Shown here: stage 3 hookworm larvae magnified x 300